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White or yellow patches on the skin, lips, gums, inner cheeks or palate;
Redness and pain in the mouth and throat;
Cracking the corners of the mouth;
Pain when swallowing, in cases where it extends to the neck.
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is common in newborns, the elderly, or people with weakened immune systems, as well as adults who:
They are treated for cancer;
He is being treated with antibiotics or corticosteroids; – wears dentures;
They have diabetes.
Its symptoms differ depending on the area of ​​the intestine where the disease is manifested, and generally include:
– Chronic diarrhea, often with bleeding or mucus;
– Weight loss;
– Abdominal pain;
– The sensation of mass agglomeration in the abdomen;
– Anal bleeding;
– Other symptoms (severe pain, fever, swelling of the gastrointestinal tract, perforation of the intestine) may develop, depending on the complications of the condition.
Provenance Crohn’s disease it is insecure. It has long been considered an autoimmune disease, but studies suggest that chronic inflammation is not due to the immune system, which attacks the body, but rather appears to be the result of the immune system attacking bacteria, viruses or food in the gut, causing its inflammation.
Liver cirrhosis
In most cases, the disease progresses silently both in the early stages and for many years after onset. Many cases of cirrhosis are diagnosed even 20 years after the onset of the disease.
At first, cirrhosis patients may present as symptoms and clinical signs:
– states of fatigue and exhaustion;
-lack of appetite;
-weight loss;
-decreased libido;
-gingival bleeding in the brush;
-bloating (flatulence);
-decreased tolerance to certain foods;
– itching;
-dark urine;
-redening of the palms;
-broken veins in the form of stars on the face or body (vascular stars);
-enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly);
-plenum enlargement (splenomegaly);
-muscular atrophy and muscle weakness;
-scratches on the skin surface (excoriations).
When the disease is in more advanced stages, other symptoms may occur
Main causes:
– cirrhosis;
– hepatitis;
– Reye’s syndrome.
Secondary causes:
– chronic constipation;
– kidney disease;
– repeated infections;
– bleeding in the esophagus, stomach or intestines;
– drug treatments that have adverse effects on the nervous system (sleeping pills).
Intestinal colic
– weeping vigorously, inexplicably. Because of crying, babies may become red or bruised;
– agitation and irritability;
– clenching the fists by flexing the upper limbs on the chest;
– cold legs with flexion of the lower limbs on the abdomen and, at the same time, flexion of the cephalic extremity (head);
– the child cannot sleep due to pain;
– sometimes he refuses to eat.
The crisis lasts about 20-30 minutes and is usually repetitive. It usually appears in the evening or in the afternoon and never during meals.
The causes that lead to colic in newborns and infants are among the most varied:
-immaturity of smooth muscles in the intestinal wall – most common;
– immaturity of the nervous system;
– lactase deficiency – quite common. Lactose is a disaccharide present in milk, as well as in dairy products, cheeses. Lactase is an enzyme synthesized by the body in the presence of lactose. Lactase will break down lactose into two carbohydrates that can be assimilated by the body, glucose and galactose.
– flatulence (bloating), which can occur as a result of either lactose deficiency or air ingestion during meals. Therefore, after the meal, the baby, sitting upright and leaning on the mother’s shoulder, should be patted on the back so that he can eliminate the gas ingested during feeding.
– sensitivity to some of the food products, but not only, consumed by the mother (alcohol, tobacco, coffee, strawberries, etc.);
– separation of the child from the mother;
– the stress and anxiety of the parents can be transmitted to the baby and thus he will become more agitated;
– sensitivity to animal milk proteins (cow, sheep, goat).
– various infections and parasitosis – urinary tract infections (eg cystitis), digestive tract infections (gastroenterocolitis), intestinal parasitosis (giardiasis), respiratory infections (viruses), ENT infections (otitis).
– gastroesophageal reflux.
– Fewer seats or difficulty in removing them;
– Soft or hard seats;
– Stomach pain and inflammation;
– Vomiting.
– Administration of antacids, containing calcium or aluminum, iron or antidepressant therapies;
– Changes in diet or daily activities;
– Colon cancer;
– Excessive consumption of dairy products;
– Poor nutrition, which does not include enough fiber;
– Lack of hydration;
– Lack of physical activity;
– Irritable bowel syndrome;
– Neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s or multiple sclerosis;
– Excessive use of laxatives;
– Pregnancy;
– Hypothyroidism;
– Stress.


    The most common causes of acute diarrhea are:
    – Bacterial infections – several types of bacteria introduced into the body through food and water cause diarrhea. Example: Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli).
    – Viral infections – hepatitis virus, cytomegalovirus, de novo virus or retrovirus can cause diarrhea. Retrovirus infection is the most common cause of diarrhea in children. In this case, the diarrhea is treated within 3-7 days, and long-term intolerance (more than a month) to lactose and even recurrent gastrointestinal infections may occur due to the bacterial imbalance caused by the initial episode.
    – Traveler’s diarrhea – caused by food and drink contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites. The vast majority of cases start suddenly with frequent stools (around 4-5 per day). Other associated symptoms are: dizziness, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, drowsiness, bloating. Most cases
    Diarrhea is characterized by frequent feces (at least 3 times a day), soft or watery consistency. Feces are residues that are to be eliminated from the body, obtained from the digestion and absorption of nutrients and fluids from food. Improper absorption of fluids or their excessive secretion by the digestive system leads to the appearance of soft, watery stools (they contain water, salts, minerals and weigh more than normal, normal stools).
    Diarrhea associated with antibiotic treatment
    – Watery diarrhea – 3 or more stools / day minimum 2 days;
    – Pain in the lower abdomen.
    – In severe forms of infection, the patient may need hospitalization because colitis or pseudocolitis membranes, associated with severe dehydration and:
    – Watery diarrhea – 10-15 stools / day;
    – Severe abdominal pain;
    – Increased heart rate;
    – Fever;
    – Stools with blood and mucus;
    – Weight loss;
    – Increased leukocyte count;
    – Nausea;
    – Decreased appetite.
    The main causes of intestinal bacterial imbalance are:
    – Consumption of antibiotics
    – Excessively administered laxatives
    – Contamination with pathogenic species in food
    – Intestinal diseases that change the local conditions at this level, the new conditions being unfavorable to the normal intestinal flora
    – Prolonged infusion feeding,
    – Decreased acidity of gastric juice, of various causes including prolonged administration of drugs that decrease gastric acidity
    – Unusual diets, which may favor or inhibit certain species of bacteria, leading to imbalances between them
    – Modification of the intestinal transit (constipation or excessive diarrhea), regardless of the cause
    – Immune deficiencies – especially those of immunoglobulin A (which is the local mucosal defense factor)
    – Surgery can alter the local balance that is necessary for normal intestinal flora
    – Excessive consumption of chemically preserved foods
    – Anxiety (increases the rhythm of bowel movements with a tendency to diarrhea) or depression (decreases bowel movements can lead to constipation)
    Chronic diarrhea
    Diarrhea itself is a symptom, but can be associated with:
    -abdominal cramps in the portion between the chest and hips;
    – dizziness;
    – urgent need to go to the bathroom;
    – fever;
    – blood in the feces;
    – nausea;
    – dehydration.
    It can have many causes and most often has to do with bowel dysfunction.
    – Parasites – they can enter the body through food, water and can settle in the digestive system. For example: Giardia lamblia;
    – Irritable bowel syndrome – is often associated with alternating diarrhea and constipation, frequent bloating, abdominal pain that subsides after defecation or the feeling that not all feces have been removed;
    – Inflammatory bowel disease – ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease;
    – Intolerance and sensitivity to some foods – Some people have difficulty digesting certain components of food such as lactose, fructose or sorbitol;
    – Drug reactions – antibiotics, antacids containing magnesium, antihypertensives;
    – Chemotherapy and radiation therapy used to treat various types of cancer.
      -Changes in mental state;
      -Changes in behavior and personality;
      -Forgetting and confusion;
      -Disorientation and delirium;
      -Changes in mood;
      -Decreased attention;
      -Sleepiness during the day;
      -Decreased self-care capacity;
      -Deterioration of handwriting or other habits;
      -Muscular stiffness or convulsions;
      -Uncontrollable movements;
      -Deterioration of the ability to speak;
      -Bad breath.
      Main causes:
      -Reye syndrome.
      Secondary causes:
      -chronic constipation;
      – kidney disease;
      -repeated infections;
      -hemorrhages in the esophagus, stomach or intestines;
      -drug treatments that have adverse effects on the nervous system (sleeping pills).
        Bad breath.
        -There are a number of causes, including low saliva. Saliva has a cleansing action, which helps reduce and eliminate bad breath, eliminating bacteria. Bad breath caused by decreased saliva may be especially noticeable in the following situations:
        -Morning. The circulation of saliva is almost non-existent in sleep, which means that its absence allows the growth of bacteria that cause bad breath.
        -When you are hungry, eat too little or are on a diet. Chewing food increases the amount of saliva in the mouth.
        -When you are dehydrated and, implicitly, produce less saliva.
        -When you take certain medications.
        -When you drink alcohol.
        Other causes of bad breath include:
        -Consumption of food with strong smells;
        -Accumulation of bacteria or dental plaque in the oral cavity, caused by food trapped between the teeth, in dentures or other dental applications.
          According to the ROMA IV consensus, IBS is characterized by average recurrent pain (on average at least 1 day / week in the last 3 months) associated with two or more of the following symptoms:
          – is related to defecation;
          – is associated with a frequent change of stool;
          – is associated with a change in stool consistency;
          – the symptoms have been present for at least 6 months.
          It is one of the most common intestinal disorders and a consequence of several possible factors, including psychological stress, gastrointestinal infections, inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, imbalance of the immune system, hormonal status and intestinal microbiome, which interferes with the transmission of messages. between the brain and the intestine.
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