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Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Published on 20-06-17
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common intestinal disorders and a consequence of several possible factors, including psychological stress, gastrointestinal infections, inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, imbalance of the immune system, hormonal status and intestinal microbiome. , which can interfere with the transmission of messages between the brain and the intestine.

Currently, there are many theories that aim to explain the symptoms of IBS, but the theory of the intestinal axis – brain – immune system – intestinal microflora is well known, as well as the fact that, following the interaction of these components, peptides and other neuroendocrine substances are released. generates IBS events. In addition, it is well known that IBS can have an onset of post-intestinal infectious episodes. These intestinal infectious episodes lead to the persistence of low-grade inflammation in the colonic mucosa.

Another theory of minor functional disorders is that IBS begins with intestinal dysbiosis, and qualitative changes in the intestinal microbiome can lead to the proliferation of bacterial species that produce gas and short-chain fatty acids. It can also disrupt motility and even intestinal peristalsis, by affecting the transport of water and electrolytes in the mucosa.

Rome IV criteria for irritable bowel syndrome consist of recurrent abdominal pain (on average at least one day a week for the past 3 months) associated with 2 or more of the following:

– It’s related to defecation

– Associated with a change in seat frequency

– Associated with a change in stool consistency

– Symptoms have been present for at least 6 months

In addition, the Roma IV criteria aim to eliminate the disjunction between functional (condition without anatomical or physiological cause) and organic (condition with changes in the structure or function of an organ), arguing that disorders of brain-intestine interaction may present immune dysfunction in the mucosa or intestinal microbiome abnormalities.

This condition is mainly manifested among adolescents or young adults, followers of a disorderly lifestyle and has a frequency twice as high in women as in men.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome vary from case to case, but are often based on either diarrhea or constipation, complemented by bloating, bloating (noises in the bowel during digestion), abdominal discomfort, and abnormal defecation. effort, feeling of urgency or incomplete elimination.

Diagnosing

Diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome is made only by a doctor, following a set of tests that may include ultrasound or colonoscopy.

Only they can establish the presence of IBS, to the detriment of organic diseases of the digestive system – colitis, pancreatitis, absorption disorders.

It is important that patients visit their doctor from the first symptoms. Although IBS is a chronic condition, the discipline and support of specialists increases the chances of keeping symptoms under control.

In addition, the prevention and early detection of these functional disorders remain very important.

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